Blog post by Dr Hadiza A. Ahmad, Abuja.

6th April 2020

COVID-19: Public Transport and Gender in Nigeria

Since the 30th March 2020, millions of Nigerians have been in lockdown in Abuja Federal Capital Territory and in Lagos and Ogun States due to the coronavirus pandemic. This has caused distress for many Nigerians, including transport workers, petty traders, and domestic workers who need to work on daily basis to feed their families, and who lack savings to stockpile food.

Maryam, a middle age woman explained: “I have to walk 12 kilometers to and from work today just to fend for my family. This lockdown imposed on public transport is not fair at all, we can’t stay hungry at home, we have to feed our children with this petty job we are doing.  [It] is not possible to save for a rainy day, and we the women are always at the receiving end. We can’t sit down and watch our children go hungry. The men don’t really care – all they worry about is their social life that is hindered. I can’t stay at home“

Nigeria’s first case of coronavirus was announced on the 27th February when an Italian citizen in Lagos tested positive for the COVID-19 virus. Even though the government was already setting up measures to locate those people who must have come in contact with the Italian, and also worked unrestricting public movement and gatherings, most Nigerians remained nonchalant.

Another COVID-19 case was confirmed in Lagos state on 9th March. The second case was a Nigerian citizen in Ewekoro, Ogun State, who had been in contact with the Italian citizen. Subsequently more cases were confirmed almost on a daily basis. On 23rd March the Nigerian government announced the closure of all schools, and restricted public servants from level 12 downwards from going to work, with the exception of those who work in essential sectors including security, health, water, electricity and communications.

On 26th March more cases were reported and the Nigerian government announced that they were tracing 4,370 suspected cases. The closure of schools and workplaces had a huge impact on public transport. Public transport was restricted and people were advised to stay in their houses and avoid public gatherings.

On 29th March, the Nigerian president declared a total lockdown in three states: Abuja, Lagos, and Ogun States for 14 days. These states were declared by the NCDC and Federal Ministry of Health to have the highest number of confirmed cases of coronavirus. Cases in the country rose to 111 with 1 death recorded.

The lock-down included the closure of all public places, including garages, lorry parks, bus stops, and clubs and prayer houses. Moreover, the state and local government boundaries were no longer to be crossed. With all these measures in place, public transport was severely impacted. When this happened, some okada [motorbike-taxi] riders took the risk of still going to work, since they needed to feed their families, and some of them were arrested by the police. With this development, coupled with the fact that more case were confirmed in Abuja, Lagos and some other states, many Nigerians I spoke to came to the reality that the COVID-19 outbreak was real. As Hassana, a woman in her early 40s living in Abuja observed:

I now believe that this disease outbreak is real since banks, with all their greed for money, agree to close. Initially I thought the disease only affects the white and is not for the black race. Also, top government officials and politicians agree to close the airports and denied themselves of foreign trips”. She sighed: “Abuja become calm”.

First day of the Lockdown (30th March, 2020 Abuja City)

Third day of the lockdown (2th April 2020, in a suburb of Abuja)

Although the seriousness of the situation became apparent to most Nigerians, requiring everyone to be careful, many people in Abuja believed that they could not stay at home and go hungry. They walked to their business places as there was no public transport. Even though the markets were closed, most petty traders especially women still went out to sell vegetables and groceries along the roads,  though in a good number they were hounded by security officials.

On 2 April, which was the third day of the lockdown, I drove around the town in Abuja with my husband in our private car to see the situation for ourselves. We stopped at the front of the market to buy tomatoes and the young woman tomato seller there attended to us in a hurry, saying:

I have to be very watchful of the taskforce as am selling before they will come and throw away my tomato. Oga, give me the money fast so we don’t waste time because they can come anytime.“

I asked her why she was not staying at home, and she explained that she could not stay at home and go hungry. She said she attends to her customers from a reasonable distance and she washes her hands very often to stay safe. Such circumstances shape how poor people respond to the stay at home order by the government.

Today, Monday 6th April 2020,  a domestic worker in the locality told me about how she had been: to see her sister off at the lorry-park as she was travelling to Kano. She said that the roads were a bit busier today than they were last week, and the parks are now open but one has to book for the journey because the vehicles only carry half of the number of passengers that they used to carry before the lockdown. The majority of the passengers are not wearing face masks and there is no provision of hand sanitizers in the vehicle. The cost from here to Kano used to be 2500 naira but now it is 5000 naira because of the lesser number of passengers that board the vehicle.

6th March 2020 A few Okada riders on the move (Suburb of Abuja)

6th March: The Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has just announced that the number of confirmed cases of coronavirus in Nigeria is 232 and 33 has been discharged, with five deaths [i.e. as of 5thApril.] The irony here is that as the cases are increasing in the country: Nigerians are finding more reasons why they should not remain at home in their struggle to survive. The dreadful situation is making almost everyone in the country potentially vulnerable to the infection – both those that isolate and those that are on the move. The use of public transport has become unavoidable as people persist in going on with their daily hustle amidst the frightful situation. The government through the security officials is trying its best to force people to stay indoors but many people are sabotaging their efforts and claiming that they cannot stay home and go hungry.

If coronavirus did not kill us hunger will kill us if we agree to stay at home. Even if they will break my bones I will go out to get money“ (lament of an okada rider in his 20s).

6 th March 2020. More people on the move (A suburb of Abuja)

Towards the end of last week, markets were opened for a few hours for people to restock food and other necessities in their houses, which will also reduce the expected impact of the stay at home order. Most likely, the two weeks total lockdown that is ongoing and will end on 14thApril 2020 will not turn out to have the required impact of reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the country. Women and transport workers are especially vulnerable as they go out to do the petty jobs that are essential to sustain their families.

Blog post by Dr Saerom Han and Rania Houiji 27.3.2020

COVID-19 and Public Transport in Tunisia

˜I was scared of the virus particularly when I took bus. I used to be feeling bad because of harassment, but now the virus is more threatening than harassment. When someone slightly touched my hand, I felt myself dead and cried for no reason. I started using collective taxi or private taxi because they are safer than bus…” (Fatma, woman in her 20s living in Tunis)

As the situation with COVID-19 was getting worse in Tunisia, Fatma, who is quoted above, stopped using taxis and started commuting to work via a private bus rented by her company for workers. She is one of many Tunisians who, while wanting to stay at home, has to go continue to work because she lives from hand-to-mouth. Many Tunisians have no choice other than to take overly crowded public means of transport, despite the current danger of being infected, because of not being able to afford a car or private taxi.

The number of the COVID-19 cases in Tunisia has been rising continuously since the first case was confirmed on March 2, 2020. The government reported 114 infection cases with four deaths as of March 25, but the actual number of cases is likely to be far higher than what was reported given Tunisia’s limited testing capabilities. So far it has only carried out 69 tests per million people. Like many other countries, Tunisia’s medical infrastructure is poorly prepared for infection control and treatment as marked by the presence of only three hospital beds per 1,000 people. The state is trying to prevent further spread of the virus mainly through social distancing measures. Two days after the state decided to close borders for all commercial travels and ban public events and gatherings on March 16, it also imposed a two-week curfew between 6pm and 6am to restrict the mobility of people.

Many doctors have warned against the risk of the spread of the virus via buses and metros as they are so over-crowded. The interview data [collected prior to the arrival of COVID-19] in our ˜Youth Engagement and Skills Acquisition within Africa’s Transport Sector” project in Tunis supports this concern. Many public transport workers and passengers alike complained about the shortage of buses and metros particularly in peri-urban areas. The interview data also indicates that public transport in general is not hygienic, and is poorly managed and unsafe.

Amid the growing concern about the safety of passengers and workers, the public transport sector initiated several measures to combat the spread of infection. The Ministry of Transport and Logistics said that all public transport modes will be sanitized regularly and encouraged people to avoid unnecessary travel. In accordance with the government’s curfew decision, the national public transport company TRANSTU announced that it will provide 160 additional buses and 17 additional metro trips during the late afternoon time in order to avoid peak-time congestion during the curfew hours. However, the sudden imposition of curfew created chaos at bus and metro stations as they became much more crowded than usual with people trying to head home before 6pm. Although public transport companies attempted to prevent high congestion, metros, buses and collective taxies were severely overloaded and delayed.

Source Asslemafm

The dire situation of public transport is making not only passengers but also transport staff vulnerable to the infection. Criticizing the authorities’ slow response to the pandemic, a representative of metro conductors, Rachid, said that all public transport in Tunis must stop operating if they are to protect their staff and passengers. On March 20, he called for the general lockdown of the country via his Facebook post, warning that metro workers will stop working if the government fails to do so. The situation with buses is even worse as, unlike metros, bus drivers and ticket sellers have to share the space with passengers. TRANSTU has recently installed ad hoc plastic curtains to protect drivers.

Source Transtu facebook page

As the situation with COVID-19 evolved, Tunisia finally entered into a two-weeks of general quarantine on March 22 with the exception for those who work in vital sectors including security, health, water, electricity and public transport. Prime Minister Elyes Fakhfakh announced that only around 15% of Tunisians who work in vital sectors are allowed to go out for work, and military and police officers will be deployed on streets to control the mobility of people. However, all Tunisians can leave their house for a short walk and for grocery shopping.

Following the government’s decision, TRANSTU reduced the service of metros and buses to every 30 to 45 minutes. It still remains to be seen whether public transport will meet the needs of citizens while limiting the spread of the virus. But, the picture below, widely circulated on social media on the first day of the nationwide lockdown, reflects the current challenges and limitations of the public transport sector in Tunisia.

Source Medea Bachene

Peer researcher’s experiences (Tunis and Cape Town will be uploaded later)

Female peer researcher Abuja:

I really appreciate this organisation because it has changed my life. Somehow. Because I now have my own machine my own sewing machine with the money I earned from women transport. I used it to buy my sewing machine. As I’m still learning but I’m so so grateful. But at least that has really changed my mind. Gives me more opportunity to practice and explore. I’m going to use it as a business but for now, I’m still learning I’m not that perfect so for now I’m just doing it for my close friends, my relatives and myself. So it’s beautiful, you own your own yes machine. Especially when you are a fashion designer you own your own machine so. So it is one of the greatest joys of it. Yes. I really appreciate that’s really changed my life somehow. Yes. The interaction I made with people. The people I came across. Yes. I got to meet some other people to interact with some other people. And it also gave me the privilege to know how to interact to people, even though sometimes people might be difficult. but you know with this experience that made me even gives me more patience. You understand. Makes me to be more patient and no understanding and to tolerate people I come across. Yes, thank you. ..So when this opportunity came I was like. Ah, at least this will even give the me the idea of being a maybe a media person, or journalist or a media person so doing this made me feel this was what I always wanted to do, but I never had the opportunity. But it was very very great. It was fun for me. I had fun doing it. I was like feeling like a journalist, you know, I was like. Ah, this is what I wanted to do.

Female peer researcher Abuja:

Okay. It was a new experience all together. I would say it was eye-opening. It’s something I had not done before but I enjoyed doing. It was an avenue to meet people, different kinds of people. Some are pleasant. Some are kind of annoying some will just reject you out rightly. Some will diplomatically just reject you and all that. It was a new thing, and I think I’m open to new things always, so I enjoyed it all together. It was challenging because it’s to do with something I had never even thought of. Before the research but now the researchers opened our eyes. In fact, there is a business I started just by going around and seeing that. Ok ah. I can actually give people this and earn a living from it also. So I started a business along the line. Cosmetics and supplements. Basically Longrich business. I was doing it but I was not good in it because it is a networking business but because I was not really going out. Before I could not talk to somebody easily, but now I will see somebody I will want to talk my supervisor can attest you that anytime i see somebody I will want to talk about my Longrich business.

Blog post Abuja July 2019

“By the roadside it was a mad rush as okadas (motorbike-taxis) were really scarce. Everyone was in a hurry to get one. So they were little or no bargain for prices, the riders were obviously taking advantage of that. Just as we were standing hoping to get an okada I heard loud screams of various people, some were saying aaahhh! Jeesuus, Auzibilahi!! Yeeyeee! Inna lalahi [Aaahh, Jesus, I seek refuge from the devil, everything is from God!. The two young men I was standing with all turned and saw an okada, its rider and a mother in her early 30s with her school-girl daughter on the ground all in in the mud. We all rushed to them; young men took up the bike, making it stand, everyone was ok only the mother sustained injury on her elbow while trying to shield her daughter from the impact of the fall. I almost felt like trekking- and not taking an okada, but I would be late so I had to” (A peer researcher’s travel diary).

On the 20 May 2019, we kicked off our Nigeria field research for the project “Youth engagement and skills acquisition within Africa’s transport sector: promoting a gender agenda towards transitions into meaningful work.”  The project, which is being conducted in peripheral, low-income neighbourhoods of three different cities in Africa – Tunis, Abuja and Cape Town – is aimed at understanding the diverse transport-related constraints young women living there experience in their day-to-day lives and how transport-related issues impact on their work opportunities.  Transport is not simply about getting to a destination: mobilities are experienced through the body and are part of everyday life – they may not only be physical but also virtual (particularly through the use of mobile phones to leapfrog physical distance). Young people travel to school, work or when visiting relatives or friends, either by walking or using private or public transport, and often experience unequal power relations when doing so.

The story related at the start of this blog was just one of many difficult tales we heard in a hotel conference room in Abuja as we worked with the seven motivated young women from local communities whom we were training as peer researchers.  By training young women (aged between 18 and 35) from the communities so that they can research the experiences of their peers in their home neighbourhoods at the outset of this project, we hope to get a much stronger understanding of  the mobility challenges such women face in their daily lives.  We have taken this approach to ensure that our subsequent action study is fully grounded in the questions and issues they raise.  This approach is novel but has been used very effectively in a series of mobility studies with commonly disadvantaged groups by the project PI (e.g. Porter 2016; Porter et al. 2017): it forms the first stage of the project in all three of the study cities.  

Despite our workshop taking place during Ramadan in Nigeria, the workshop days were filled with intense discussion and debate.  The peer researchers interviewed each other, mapped out the locations they considered as unsafe/safe on large sheets of paper, and discussed why they found certain areas problematic. Field exercises, interspersed with classroom work, ensured that the peer researchers own travel stories, travel diaries and the initial interviews they conducted with people in their home communities were shared and discussed.  Some of the women and girls interviewed during this week had experienced significant violence in their daily travels, from knife threats to severe traffic accidents when travelling in overcrowded vehicles; occasionally their money was stolen.  Many young women said they often felt unsafe travelling in the city, but were still compelled to travel, despite this insecurity, in order to make a living.

At the end of the training week our seven peer researchers received certificates for their participation, but they are now continuing data collection, with support from the research assistants (staff at the University of Abuja and Jos who were trained to provide support to the peer researcher teams through their participation in the workshop process itself). 

During the week we also held the first of the Nigeria Country Consultative Group (CCG) meeting.  Here the project team [see below] and our peer researchers were joined by representatives from the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC), National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW), Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), National Centre for Women Development (NCWD),  Abuja Urban Mass Transport Company (AUMTCO), village leaders, youth leaders, the National Centre for Woman Development, the International Women’s Centre as well as Abuja Urban Mass Transportation Company.  All actively engaged in the discussions and raised  important points. Some argued that there was a stereotype that public transport jobs were mainly for men, and it was hard to motivate women to be involved either as bus drivers, or conductors. Others were more optimistic, claiming that they had been overwhelmed by the response of women who wanted to be involved in the transport sector, perhaps as conductors or mechanics. At the meeting, a few of the participants reminded us of the need to consider  important issues such as disability and the need to take into account diverse types of pedestrians in the planning and  actual physical construction of bridges. Disabilities can have a major impact on women’s experience of transport, but pregnant women may also have difficulties when traversing the footbridges. Further, we should be aware of women travelling on foot in particular.

The peer researchers are still busy conducting interviews with community members as well as reporting their personal travel stories. We will keep you posted on the progress of our research and the main issues emerging.

Contributors:

Prof Gina Porter, Durham University, UK (Project PI)

Dr Claire Dungey, Durham University, UK (Project PDRA)

Dr Fatima Adamu, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Nigeria country lead)

Dr Plangsat Dayil, University of Jos (Nigeria CI)

Mrs Hadiza A. Ahmad, University of Abuja (RA)

Mr Yahaya Joseph Mshelia, University of Jos (RA)

Mrs Sa’adat Yakubu, Assistant Field Researcher

Our peer researchers: 

Aisha Umar Mohammed, Aisha Musa, Umar Nasirat Usman, Bulus Patience, Maryam Abdullahi, Hafsat Adamu[1], Hauwa Mohammed.


[1] Had to leave the project due to time constraints

Blog post by Professor Emma Murphy. Tunis June 2019

Women’s mobility in Tunisia: early project results high-light insecurity

“Everyday, a pick-up truck comes to pick me up with 7 other women. We get in the back of the truck, dealing with the early morning cold. We don’t get paid enough. We spend fifteen minutes on the road. I don’t feel safe. I’m worried the whole way. And sometimes it rains on us. I leave my house at seven and sometimes I wait till eight for the pick-up truck to show up. Sometimes the driver doesn’t come and he asks us to figure things out ourselves. The driver avoids police check-points so he will not get fined for carrying people in his truck. One time, oil was spilled on the road. The truck started slipping and we thought we were going to die” (28- year- old woman,  Arroussia).

On the 27th April a pick-up truck collided with a minivan carrying poultry in the Sabala district of Sidi Bouzid in Tunisia. Traffic accidents are common here: the country suffers from long-neglected road infrastructure, especially in central rural areas like Sidi Bouzid. Road safety and driving standards are poor, there is inadequate vehicle and  traffic regulation and enforcement, and there is a chronic lack of public transport which suffers from historic under-investment and over-centralisation. Not surprisingly then, national statistics indicate an average of 239 deaths per 100,000 citizens compared to 36 per 100,000 in the UK.

But this accident high-lighted a particular and gendered aspect of Tunisian transport. Of the 12 people killed, seven were women. Like many women living in rural areas, they were employed as cheap agricultural labour. Such women, working long hours with no social protection, poor working conditions, and for very low wages, comprise 58% of the rural workforce according to the United Nations. 32% of all Tunisian women live in rural areas and  17% of are employed in the agricultural sector but with a female rural unemployment rate of 35% they have little collective leverage in battling for improvements in their working status despite making a massive contribution to national food production and security.

So each day, farmers can take their pick of women seeking work, cramming them into the back of unregulated pick-up trucks to drive them often very long distances to precarious work on the farms. Accidents are common: just before the April 27th event, 9 farm workers fell from a lorry and were injured  in the Ragada region of Kairouan and another two died in an accident in Zaghouan. On this occasion, however, a social media campaign quickly picked up demanding that the government step in to stop farmers treating their low-paid, mostly female workforce “like cattle”. Demonstrations and protests broke out in Sidi Bouzid and other rural towns, and opposition parties and trade unions were quick to join forces in condemning government failures to regulate the work and transport conditions of agricultural labour.

In fact, the problems had already made it onto the government’s “to do” list. Just a  month before the government had announced a series of measures designed to support women in work, optimistically labelled the National Strategy for Economic and Social Empowerment of Women and Girls in Rural Areas Initiative. The first measure, called Ahmini (‘protect me’) is a digital app. which allows female agricultural workers to register on-line with the public health system, without the need for an employer’s sponsorship and at very low cost to themselves. It is unfortunate that many women are unlikely to benefit from this given low digital skills in rural areas and poor internet service. The second measure which aims to enhance women’s mobility is to authorise public transport systems to offer transport services to agricultural workers outside their currently authorised operational zones. Again, the efficacy of this will be limited by the already inadequate fleet sizes of the bus companies which mean that they cannot properly service even those areas in which they already operate. The early interview data gathered by peer researchers on the Youth engagement and skills acquisition within Africa’s transport sector project clearly indicate that there are not enough buses (and even these are in poor and often dangerous condition), that there are too few bus routes meaning frequent transfers between vehicles and long waits in between, that the buses are severely over-crowded and that they are particularly  unsafe for women who are subjected to daily harassment, pick-pocketing and mugging.    Similarly, collective taxis are dangerously over-crowded, badly driven, poorly maintained and expose women to regular scrutiny and abuse for how they look and what they wear. Private buses and taxis offer greater personal security but are too expensive for most women, very few of whom can afford a car or can drive themselves.

The early interview data has painted an extremely gloomy picture of women’s mobility in Tunisia. The two research sites have indicated commonalities between rural areas and peri-urban settlements. Women are more reliant on public transport than men and thus more severely impacted by its inadequacies. They spend enormous amounts of time travelling what are often quite short distances. Transport is unpredictable and largely unscheduled. Places have to be fought for in buses and collective taxis, and the vehicles are often poorly maintained and unsafe. They are seriously over-crowded, leaving women vulnerable to men squeezing up against them, groping them, and worse. Public transport will not even service some residential areas where the roads are in too poor a condition or drivers themselves do not feel safe, leaving women to walk in unsafe and unlit locations. Informal barriers restrict women from working as drivers themselves, so women move in entirely male-controlled environments, making mobility beyond the immediate residential location a constantly stressful and intimidating project.

Youth engagement and skills acquisition within Africa’s transport sector: promoting a gender agenda towards transitions into meaningful work

 At a time that young people – particularly young women – are regarded as insufficiently tapped human resources in Africa’s development story, they simultaneously experience social and economic exclusions that drive them into unemployment and poverty.

 Although there is now a profusion of work engaging with the informality of African cities, and growing concern about youth’s place within it, new thinking is required on urban mobility.  Many reviews highlight issues of youth exclusion and its gendered dimensions. However, transport continues to be an understudied facet of this exclusion. Indeed, young women are discriminated against widely with regards to access to safe spaces in cities. This is particularly evident with regard to their access and use of transport, which in turn affects their access to skills acquisition and employment across all sectors. For instance, Adamu observed the negative impacts of shari’a-related campaigns to stop northern Nigerian women riding commercial motorcycle-taxis on their mobility and activities.

 Discrimination against women is also a key feature of quality employment within the transport sector itself. The two elements are inter-related since women’s lack of visibility as workers in the transport sector contributes to male dominance of transport and travel operations as well as both perceived and real women’s safety. It also partly accounts for transport planning which is both gender blind and gender-biased. Getting young women into more meaningful, higher status employment in the transport sector, and into using transport modes more effectively, are crucial to addressing inequality (and the resulting social exclusion, poverty and diminished health of women). This objective requires relevant skills acquisition, at an early age, to enable women to break through such barriers. 

It is within this framework that Durham University launched the ESRC-funded Action Research project titled “Youth engagement and skills acquisition within Africa’s transport sector: promoting a gender agenda towards transitions into meaningful work.” The project’s core objective is to help disadvantaged girls and young women obtain improved access to transport (both as users and workers/employees) and in turn increase their opportunities for obtaining meaningful paid work.  

 This research focuses on young women living in peripheral locations of three major African city regions: Cape Town (South Africa), Abuja (Nigeria) and Tunis (Tunisia). Set in very diverse country contexts, these city regions are among the more dynamic parts of their respective national economies and hence continue to attract migration from young people seeking work. This city selection offers an opportunity to explore impacts on transport practices of three very different cultural, socio-economic and political environments. While each city region has relatively high employment potential, by comparison with other parts of their respective country, youth employment for the majority of those resident in the city peripheries (common location of recent migrants and low-income families) is typically in precarious, poorly paid, informal sector work. For young women, opportunities are particularly sparse and tend to revolve around petty trade, food processing and service activities such as hairdressing, plus agriculture in rural sites.

The wider project team, comprising researchers from Tunisia, Durham University, the University of Cape Town, Usmanu Danfodiyo University (Sokoto, Nigeria), and Transaid, met in Tunis for an inception meeting in February. The meeting served to kick off the 27-month project and agree on a timeline for activities.

 Currently, country research teams are setting out to understand the nature and scale of gender inequalities shaped by everyday transport sector practices and the implications for young women’s skills acquisition and employment prospects within and beyond the transport sector. In order to do so, two research sites will be selected in each city region, a peri-urban and a rural site, both connected to the city centre by public transport and employment. Ultimately, this research will inform pilot interventions, led by partner organization Transaid through training and capacity building, to develop young women’s skills as users and workers in the transport sector.

 A key early project activity is the training of six local young women from each country to equip them with the skills required to contribute to research efforts in their communities. These training workshops are planned for March in Tunis, March/April in Abuja, and April in Cape Town. This is in line with a co-production approach embedded in this project, which foregrounds young women’s voices, including through co-investigation.

 Whilst acknowledging the constraints of structural conditions, the project focuses on the agency of young women themselves, specifically in developing their own skills to maximise opportunities within that ecology and, through participation, to bring about change from below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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